Richard A. Harshman
Department of Psychology
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario, CANADA N6A 5C2
We, and the scientific community, not only have lost a major contributor to theory, we have also lost a truly gentle man- a man playful with ideas, kind-hearted and generous. The world is diminished with his passing.
Richard was committed to the passionate pursuit of knowledge. Richard has been a valued member of this department since 1976 and rose through the ranks over the years, becoming a Full Professor. Richard was truly a renaissance man with interests that ranged from the effects of marijuana on cognitive abilities to analysis of individual differences in cerebral organization to the developments of three-player chess. He is, of course, most identified with creative and important developments in statistical analysis. An entry for him in Wikipedia notes that he was one of the pioneers in latent semantic analysis. He made two extremely important contributions to psychometrics, dealing first with the analysis of asymmetric square tables and second, in the analysis multiway tables. His work on PARAFAC is used in biomedical applications, chemometrics and wireless communications. One external reviewer of his work noted that “ He is one of the most influential quantitative methodologists in the past 30 years….he is a fundamental thinker, not distracted by appearances of currently fashionable approaches. He is always walking a few steps ahead of most of us”. Another noted: “His work is well known..his presence and influence looms large and he basically single handedly started the complex discussions about uniqeness several years prior to receiving his PhD.”
Dr. Richard Allan Harshman is survived by his wife Elizabeth Hampson and was the cherished son of Allan and Louise Harshman and son-in-law of John and Margaret Hampson. Richard was also the dear brother of Susan (Greg) Liddle and dear brother-in-law of Cheryl (Ken) Haddrell, Crystal and Mark. He leaves behind many valued friends and colleagues at U.W.O.
A graduate scholorship has been set up in in memory of Dr. Harshman. Donations will be gratefully accepted for the
Richard A. Harshman Graduate Scholarship
c/o Foundation Western
University of Western Ontario
London Ontario, Canada
or by calling 519-661-3140.
||Develop new models and methods for uncovering dimensional
structure in complex multivariate data
exploratory factor analysis and MDS, decomposition
of asymmetries, new mathematical notation for array algebra
||Apply new (and standard) methods to data sets of colleagues
in order to gain experience with problems that arise in
real data situations, and to devise solutions to these problems,
e.g., in psychometrics and chemometrics
||Explore ways of analyzing novel kinds of data and/or "difficult" data
(e.g., subjective causal maps, fMRI data)
to gain insights into interesting measurement issues
Sungjin Hong, PhD (Degree granted June 2002)
"Factor analytic methods useful for rotational and dimensional indeterminacies"
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Illinois
603 E. Daniel Street
Champaign, IL 61820
- Zhen Zhang, MSc (Degree granted June 2007)
"Testing a measurement model for an analysis method that combines aspects of Parafac with structural equation modeling"
Currently: PhD student at the University of Western Ontario
* Partial funding since 1980 has been provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
R. A. (1970). Foundations of the PARAFAC procedure: Models and
conditions for an "explanatory" multi-modal factor analysis. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 16, 1-84. (UMI Serials in Microform, No. 10,085).
- Harshman, R. A. (1972). Determination and proof of minimum uniqueness conditions for PARAFAC1. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 22, 111-117. UMI Serials in Microform, No. 10,085).
- Harshman, R. A. (1972). PARAFAC2: Mathematical and technical notes. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 22, 30-44. UMI Serials in Microform, No. 10,085).
- Harshman, R. A., Ladefoged, P., & Goldstein, L. (1977). Factor analysis of tongue shapes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62, 693-707.
R. A., & Berenbaum, S. A. (1981). Basic concepts underlying the
PARAFAC- CANDECOMP three-way factor analysis model and its application
to longitudinal data. In D. H. Eichorn, J. A. Clausen, N. Haan, M. P.
Honzik, & P. H. Mussen (Eds.), Present and past in middle life (pp. 435-459). New York: Academic Press.
R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1984). The PARAFAC model for three-way
factor analysis and multidimensional scaling. In H. G. Law, C. W.
Snyder, Jr., J. Hattie, & R. P. McDonald (Eds.), Research methods for multimode data analysis (pp. 122-215). New York: Praeger.
R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1984). Data preprocessing and the extended
PARAFAC model. In H. G. Law, C. W. Snyder, Jr., J. Hattie, & R. P.
McDonald (Eds.), Research methods for multimode data analysis (pp. 216-284). New York: Praeger.
R. A. (1984). "How can I know if it's 'real'?" A catalog of diagnostics
for use with three-mode factor analysis and multidimensional scaling.
In H. G. Law, C. W. Snyder, Jr., J. Hattie, & R. P. McDonald
(Eds.), Research methods for multimode data analysis (pp. 566-591). New York: Praeger.
R. A., & DeSarbo, W. S. (1984). An application of PARAFAC to a
small sample problem, demonstrating preprocessing, orthogonality
constraints, and split-half diagnostic techniques. In H. G. Law, C. W.
Snyder, Jr., J. Hattie, & R. P. McDonald (Eds.), Research methods for multimode data analysis (pp. 602-642). New York: Praeger.
M. E., Harshman, R. A., & Kruskal, J. B. (1989). A two-stage
procedure incorporating good features of both trilinear and
quadrilinear methods. In R. Coppi & S. Bolasco (Eds.), Multiway data analysis (pp. 123-130). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Kruskal, J. B. (1989). Rank, decomposition, and uniqueness for 3-way and N-way arrays. In R. Coppi & S. Bolasco (Eds.), Multiway data analysis (pp. 7-18). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
J. B., Harshman, R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1989). How 3-MFA can cause
degenerate PARAFAC solutions, among other relationships. In R. Coppi
& S. Bolasco (Eds.), Multiway data analysis (pp. 115-121). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
S., Dumais, S. T., Furnas, G. W., Landauer, T. K., & Harshman, R.
A. (1990). Indexing by latent semantic analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41, 391-407.
- Harshman, R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1994). PARAFAC: Parallel factor analysis. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 18, 39-72.
R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1996). Uniqueness proof for a family of
models sharing features of Tucker's three-mode factor analysis and
PARAFAC/CANDECOMP. Psychometrika, 61, 133-154.
R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1997). An "extended PARAFAC model"
incorporating singly-subscripted constants: Theory and application.
Poster presented at TRICAP '97, a conference on three-way methods in
chemistry and psychology, Lake Chelan, Washington, May.
R. A. (2004). The problem and nature of degenerate solutions or
decompositions of 3-way arrays. Paper presented at the American
Institute of Mathematics Tensor Decomposition Workshop, Palo Alto, CA,
Harshman, R. A. (2004). An annotated bibliography of articles on
degenerate solutions or decompositions: Supplementary information for
the above paper.
R. A. (2005). Tutorial: The Parafac model and decomposition and their
variants. Paper presented at the Centre International de Rencontres
Mathématiques (CIRM) Workshop on Tensor Decompositions and
Applications, Marseilles, France, August.
- Harshman, R. A. (2001). An index formalism that generalizes the capabilities of matrix notation and algebra to n-way arrays. Journal of Chemometrics, 15, 689-714.
- Harshman, R. A., & Hong, S. (2002). 'Stretch' vs 'slice' methods for representing three-way structure via matrix notation. Journal of Chemometrics, 16, 198-205.
R. A. (1978). Models for analysis of asymmetrical relationships among N
objects or stimuli. Paper presented at the First Joint Meeting of the
Psychometric Society and The Society for Mathematical Psychology,
Hamilton, Ontario, August.
R. A. (1981). Alternating least squares estimation for the single
domain DEDICOM model. Unpublished technical memorandum, Bell
Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.
R. A., Green, P. E., Wind, Y., & Lundy, M. E. (1982). A model for
the analysis of asymmetric data in marketing research. Marketing Science, 1, 205-242.
M. R., & Harshman, R. A. (1986). The multidimensional analysis of
asymmetries in alphabetic confusion matrices: Evidence for
global-to-local and local-to-global processing. Perception and Psychophysics, 40, 370-383.
R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1990). Multidimensional analysis of
preference structures. In A. deFontenay, M. H. Shugard, & D. S.
Sibley (Eds.), Contributions to economic analysis: Vol 187. Telecommunications demand modeling: An integrated view (pp. 185-204). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
M. E., Harshman, R. A., Paatero, P., & Swartzman, L. C. (2003).
Application of the 3-way DEDICOM model to skew-symmetric data from
paired preference ratings of treatments for chronic back pain. Poster
presented at TRICAP 2003, a conference on trilinear methods in
chemistry and psychology, Lexington, Kentucky, June.
Ongoing internet math/psych/3-way research project
Marijuana, cognitive style, and lateralized hemispheric functions (mentioned in 12 November 2003 letter to National Post)
Other Sites Of Interest
Kroonenberg's Three-Mode Company with links to a large bibliography,
TMC analysis programs, three-way data sets, three-mode research
conferences, contact information for an extensive list of workers in
the multiway area (some with pictures), including important
contributors that do not have web pages (e.g., Jos ten Berge, J.
Douglas Carroll), etc.
Bro's site with multi-way analysis and chemometrics links, free Parafac
and Tucker related software (in Matlab), and short music clips
book Multi-way Analysis in the Food Industry (1998); a good
introduction to multilinear models that starts simply, goes on to
in-depth treatment, and presents new results
research and applications company, a leading developer of three-way
applications, including The PLS Toolbox which contains Matlab based
software for PARAFAC, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), Principal
Components Regression, etc.
Sidiropoulos's publications; includes, for example, applications for
PARAFAC and related three-way methods in electrical engineering (e.g.,
signal processing) and papers on mathematical analysis of uniqueness of
Kiers site, which lists many important multiway articles, e.g., on
Tucker and constrained Tucker models, advanced multiway algorithms.
More information about the psychology department at UWO can be found at http://www.psychology.uwo.ca/
Last revised 16 Dec 2008